Why Are Women Living Longer Than Men

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Everywhere in the world women live longer than men - but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn't live longer than men in the 19th century. What's the reason women are more likely to live longer than men? And how the advantage has grown in the past? There isn't much evidence and we're left with only partial solutions. Although we know that there are biological, behavioral and environmental factors that play an integral role in women living longer than men, we don't know the extent to which each factor plays a role.

It is known that women are living longer than males, regardless of weight. However, this is not due to the fact that certain non-biological aspects have changed. What are the factors that are changing? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complex. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women's longevity disproportionately.

Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. As you can see, افضل كريم للشعر all countries are above the diagonal parity line - it means that in all nations the newborn girl is likely to live for longer than a new boy.1

The chart above shows that while the female advantage exists in all countries, افضل كريم للشعر global differences are significant. In Russia women live 10 years longer than males; while in Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.

The advantage of women in life expectancy was smaller in rich countries that it is today.
We will now examine the way that female advantages in longevity has changed over time. The chart below illustrates the men and women's life expectancies when they were born in the US during the period 1790 to 2014. Two points stand out.

First, there's an upward trend. as well as women in the US are living much, much longer today than a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.

The second is that there is an ever-widening gap: female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest, but it grew substantially over the last century.

Using the option 'Change country from the chart, you will be able to verify that these two points apply to other countries that have available data: Sweden, France and the UK.